Export Controls Overview
The United States government regulates the transfer of certain goods, technology, and technical data considered to be strategically important to the U.S. Export control laws are a complex set of federal regulations designed to protect U.S. national security, prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; further U.S. foreign policy including the support of international agreements, human rights, and regional stability; and maintain U.S. economic competitiveness. Export control regulations govern how information, technologies, and commodities can be transmitted overseas to anyone, including U.S. citizens or foreign nationals physically present in the U.S.
Of even greater importance to the university, export controls have the potential to limit the research opportunities of university faculty severely and their students and staff, as well as to prevent international collaboration in certain research areas. Non-compliance with export controls can result in severe monetary and criminal penalties against both an individual and the university and the loss of research contracts, governmental funding, and the ability to export items.
The Departments of State, Commerce, and Treasury are the primary agencies charged with the implementation and enforcement of export regulations. Each of the Departments are responsible for different areas of exports though there are times when jurisdiction may overlap.
For more information, see Regulations
Universities in the U.S., including UAF, have a long tradition of inventing and developing leading-edge technologies that are important for national security and economic competitiveness as well as for educating and training scholars from around the world. Most basic research conducted at the university is not subject to export controls under what is referred to as the "Fundamental Research Exclusion" (or "FRE"). Fundamental research is basic or applied research in science and/or engineering at an accredited institution of higher learning in the U.S. resulting in information that is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community.
Research in the following areas is most likely to be affected by export controls:
For more information, see Export Controls & Research
Traveling with certain types of high-tech equipment, including but not limited to advanced GPS units, scientific equipment, or with controlled, proprietary, or unpublished data in any format may require an export license, depending on your travel destination.
For more information, see Export Controls & University Activities
Fines for non-compliance with export controls are quite severe and can be levied at both the individual as well as the university. In addition to significant monetary fines and lengthy prison sentences, the potential loss of all federal funding and loss of export privileges would be crippling to the university. University personnel may not transfer any items, information, technology or software contrary to U.S. export control laws or the university’s policy on export controls.
|Penalties of $500,000 per violation
|Penalties of up to $1 million per violation along with up to 20 years in prison
|Penalties of $10,000 to $120,000 per violation
|Penalties of $50,000 to $1 million per violation along with up to 10 years in prison
|Penalties of $250,000 per violation
|Penalties of up to 20 years in prison