Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
The term “Export Controls” refers collectively to the body of U.S. laws and regulations that govern the transfer of controlled items or information to foreign nationals or foreign entities.
Yes, export controls apply to all international activities regardless of funding status or source.
Yes, export controls apply to all international activities regardless of funding status or source.
Yes, export controls apply to all international research activities. In general, basic research conducted at the university is not subject to export controls under the Fundamental Research Exclusion as long as it is not in an export restricted area and there are no restrictions on publication or access by foreign nationals. However, in cases where UAF research involves collaborations with foreign nationals, the university must perform a review of the research and document whether the Fundamental Research Exclusion or another exclusion applies.
An export occurs whenever any item (i.e., any commodity, software, technology, or equipment) or information is sent from the U.S. to a foreign destination or provided to a foreign national here or abroad. The manner in which the transfer or release of the item or information occurs does not matter. Some examples of export activities include: the shipment of items, written or oral communications, hand-carrying items when traveling, providing access to or visual inspection of equipment or facilities, and providing professional services.
A deemed export refers to the release or transmission of information or technology to any foreign national in the U.S., including students, post-docs, faculty, visiting scientists, or training fellows. A deemed export is treated as an export to that person’s home country. Deemed exports are a primary area of export control exposure for the university.
A foreign national is defined as any natural person who is not a U.S. citizen, or is not a lawful permanent resident of the U.S. (i.e., does not have a green card), or who does not have refugee or asylum status.
A foreign entity is any corporation, business, or other entity that is not incorporated to do business in the U.S. This includes international organizations, foreign governments, or any agency of a foreign government.
A dual use item is any item that can potentially have a military application as well as a commercial or civilian purpose (e.g., GPS units).
ITAR stands for the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR §§120-130) and they are administered by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls under the U.S. Department of State. The ITAR governs all military, weapons, and space related items and services as enumerated on the United States Munitions List (USML).
EAR stands for the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR §§730-774) and they are administered by the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) under the U.S. Department of Commerce. The EAR governs the export of most items in the U.S., especially dual use items as enumerated on the Commerce Control List (CCL).
The EAR controls all items (commodities, software, or technology) that are 1) of U.S. origin; or 2) made with U.S. materials, technology, or know-how; or 3) located in the U.S. AND that are NOT under the exclusive jurisdiction of another regulatory body (e.g., ITAR or Nuclear Regulatory Commission) or that are NOT shielded from export controls under the Fundamental Research, Educational Information, or Public Information exclusions.
OFAC stands for the Office of Foreign Assets Control (31 CFR §§500-599) and is an office under the U.S. Department of the Treasury. OFAC is responsible for enforcing the foreign policy of the U.S. government, including all trade sanctions, embargoes, and financial interactions with prohibited or blocked individuals or entities. For more information, see a listing of OFAC Country Sanction programs.
Fundamental Research is defined by the National Security Decision Directive 189 (NSDD189) as “any basic or applied research in science and engineering, the results of which are ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community…” In order to qualify as Fundamental Research, the research must be conducted free of any publication restrictions and without any access or dissemination restrictions. Research that qualifies as Fundamental Research is NOT subject to export controls as provided for under the federal regulations (15 CFR§734.8). It is critical to note that the Fundamental Research Exclusion will be lost if a researcher agrees to any “side-deals” allowing sponsors the ability to review and approve publications or to control access to the project or project results. Loss of the Fundamental Research Exclusion can quickly put your research in jeopardy of non-compliance with export controls.
Maybe. To qualify as Fundamental Research, research must be based at an accredited institution of higher education located in the United States. If your research includes work done outside the U.S., it may not qualify for the Fundamental Research Exclusion. This does not automatically mean that export licenses will be required, but it does mean that an export control determination needs to be done before the work begins. Review this memo to international travelers (PDF) and contact firstname.lastname@example.org for help in determining any license requirements.
Not automatically. While research results developed or generated under the Fundamental Research Exclusion are exempt from export controls and can be freely shared with foreign nationals both here and abroad, any materials, items, technology, or software generated as a result of the research ARE NOT exempt from export controls. Before shipping or taking any item abroad, an export control determination needs to be done to determine if an export license is required to take or transfer the item. Contact email@example.com for help in determining any license requirements.
Information that is normally taught or released by the university as part of the normal instruction in a catalog course or in an associated teaching laboratory is considered Educational Information and, as provided for under the federal regulations, is NOT subject to export controls.
Information that is already published or is out in the public domain is considered public information and, as provided for under the federal regulations (15 CFR§734.7 and 15 CFR§734.10), is NOT subject to export controls. Examples of information in the public domain include:
- Books, newspapers, pamphlets
- Publicly available technology and software
- Information presented at conferences, meetings, and seminars open to the public
- Information included in published patents
- Websites freely accessible by the public
“ECCN” stands for Export Control Classification Number and is an alpha-numeric code used to categorize items that are subject to the EAR into one of the ten categories and five product groups within the Commerce Control List (CCL).
EAR99 is the general “catch-all” classification number assigned to any item that is subject to the EAR but that does not have a specific export control classification number listed in the Commerce Control list. By far, the vast majority of U.S. origin goods are classified as EAR99, and under most circumstances, do not require a license for export.
An Export License is a written authorization provided by the federal government granting permission for the release or transfer of export controlled information or item under a defined set of conditions.
The following are examples of the types of university activities that may trigger the need for an export license or deemed export license:
- Research in controlled or restricted areas (e.g., defense items or services, missiles, nuclear technology, satellites, chemical/biological weapons, encryption)
- Research involving the use of export restricted information, items, or technology obtained from external sources
- Research involving work with foreign national faculty, visiting scientists, students or other foreign entities either here at UAF or overseas
- Research involving travel or field work or providing professional services outside of the U.S
- Research involving the transfer or shipment of tangible items or equipment overseas
- Presentations at meetings or conferences of unpublished information not protected under the Fundamental Research or Educational Information exclusions
- Research involving the provision of financial support or services outside the U.S.
- Research involving foreign nationals and the research has not been determined by the Office of
- Research Integrity to qualify for the Fundamental Research Exclusion
Determining when you need an export license can be very complicated. The Office of Research Integrity can assist you in determining if a license is required and/or if there is a valid license exception or other exclusion that may apply. Contact the Office of Research Integrity at firstname.lastname@example.org for help with export controls.
An Export License Exception is a special authorization that allows you to export or re-export, under very specific conditions, items that would otherwise require an export license. Export License Exceptions are detailed in EAR§740.
If it is determined that your activity requires an export license, the Office of Research Integrity will coordinate the license application process. They will work with you to submit a license request to the appropriate regulatory body on your behalf. It is important to note that obtaining an export license can take 3-6 months and there is no guarantee that a license will be granted.
Yes, in most cases, low-end items that are commercially available do not require export licenses. There are some important exceptions including items containing strong encryption technology or software (e.g., laptop computers, web-enabled cell phones), items that have dual use applications (e.g., high end GPS units), or that are restricted under other regulations or sanctions.
A Technology Control Plan (TCP) is a document drafted by the researcher in collaboration with the Office of Research Integrity which specifies procedures that will be used to safeguard and control access to information or items that are export restricted. In general, a TCP will outline what the restricted information/item is, who will have access to it, how access will be monitored and controlled, how the information/item will be physically and electronically stored, what information about it can be shared or presented, and what will be done with the information/item once the project is completed. Contact email@example.com for more information on TCPs.
Research conducted at UAF that includes or uses export controlled or restricted information or items obtained from an outside entity does not qualify under the Fundamental Research Exclusion and would be subject to all export controls. Before export controlled information or item(s) are received by the researcher, the Incoming Export Controlled Information/Item Questionnaire must be completed and submitted to the Office of Research Integrity. In some cases, a formal Technology Control Plan will need to be created depending on the specific circumstances. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for help in determining your requirements.
Yes, export controls apply to all U.S. persons, at all times. It is important that you understand and comply with your obligations under export control regulations. If you are consulting in a restricted technology area (e.g., on dual-use technologies or select agent work), then you may need an export license depending on where you are going, what information you are providing, who you are providing it to, and what they intend to do with it. If the destination or end-user is a foreign national of a sanctioned country (especially Iran, Syria, Cuba, Sudan, or North Korea), then in most cases any consulting activities would be prohibited regardless of the subject matter. For more information, see a listing of OFAC Country Sanction programs.
Yes, under the current federal regulations, all activities normally incident to publishing are allowed with Iranian citizens as long as the Iranian author is not a governmental official or working on behalf of the government of Iran. Academic and research institutions in Iran and their personnel are not considered governmental employees or representatives for the purposes of the regulations. This would be true for citizens from the other sanctioned countries as well.