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Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) - An overview
A JHA is the breaking down of a job into its component steps and then evaluating each step, looking for hazards. Each hazard is then corrected or a method of worker protection (safe practice or PPE) is identified. Additional requirements for worker training, certification, authorization, etc., may also be identified for the process or job. The final product is a written document….a standard of safe operation for a particular job.
Hazards analysis can get pretty sophisticated and go into much detail. Where the potential hazards are significant and the possibility for trouble is quite real, such detail may well be essential. However, for many processes and operations — both real and proposed — a solid look at the operation or plans by a variety of affected people may be sufficient. The easiest and possibly most effective method is using the step-by-step process of the Job Hazard Analysis (JHA). JHA, sometimes referred to as a Job Safety Analysis (JSA), is covered in good detail in the Job Hazard Analysis, OSHA Publication 3071 (PDF).
How to complete a Job Hazard Analysis: Even simple processes are complex — they are impacted by human behavior, workplace variables, other business and natural forces, raw material variables, normal wear and tear, and more. Our department offers a comprehensive training class on how to break out the steps of a job, evaluate a variety of potential hazards or other related safety requirements, recommend effective controls, and complete a written document that provides a legacy of safe work practices for that particular job.
The many benefits of Job Hazard Analysis include:
- Set performance standards
- Standardize operations based on acceptable safe practices and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
- Provides a form of training documentation regarding the employee’s knowledge of the job requirements
- Comply with OSHA requirements
- Reduces injuries
- Reduces absenteeism
- Increases productivity
- Increases morale
- Protects employees
- Assists in standard-specific compliance (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE], Hazard Communication, etc…)
Frequently Asked Questions: JHA
There is no specific OSHA requirement for completing a JHA; however, OSHA does provides guidelines in 1910 Subpart I App B - Non-mandatory Compliance Guidelines for Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment Selection. Also, failing to assess specific hazards in the workplace could result in citations under many other OSHA standards as well as OSHA’s General Duty Clause. Using the JHA is an easy way to identify and control those hazards.
When an accident or injury occurs, when the job changes, after a close call, following an employee complaint, if equipment suffers damage, or even per a scheduled review (e.g., biannually)
Start with jobs with hazards that present unacceptable risks, based on those most likely to occur and with the most severe consequences. These jobs should be your first priority for analysis. Our training class will show you how to prioritize jobs.
Contact our department to schedule JHA training. We will train and guide you in the fundamentals to first prioritize, and then evaluate, your many jobs. You will learn how to recognize hazards and recommend controls, and how to document your findings in a tool that facilitates both OSHA compliance and safety training for other workers on those jobs.