2007-2008 UAF Catalog


Course descriptions index


Biology

BIOL 100X     4 Credits
Human Biology (n)
Introduction to scientific methodology and biological principles with a focus on humans as biological organisms. Topics include organization of the human body, human genetics, human development and the relationship between our bodies and health. Includes lecture, discussion, lab and projects. Offered through distance education each spring. Offered at the Northwest campus as demand warrants. May not be used as biology elective credit for a major in biological sciences. Note: Intended for non-science majors and those seeking preliminary instruction before beginning study in health-related areas. (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 103X     4 Credits
Biology and Society (n)
Fundamental principles of biology; emphasis on their application to humans in the modern world. Lectures, laboratory demonstrations, experiments and discussions of contemporary biological topics. For non-science majors; cannot be used as a biology elective by biological science majors. Laboratory fee: $50. (Offered Fall at the Northwest Campus.) (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 103L     1 Credit
Biology and Society Lab (n)
A laboratory section only of BIOL 103X designed for transfer students that are non-science majors who have completed a natural science course with no laboratory at another institution. This lab cannot be used as a biology elective by biology science majors. Laboratory Fee: $50. (Prerequisites: A natural science course with no laboratory and permission of instructor.) (0 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 104      3 Credits
BIOL 104X     4 Credits
Natural History of Alaska (n)
The physical environment peculiar to the North and important in determining the biological setting; major ecosystem concepts to develop an appreciation for land use and wildlife management problems in both terrestrial and aquatic situations. May not be used as biology elective credit for a major in biological science. BIOL 104X (4 credits) fulfills the Natural Science Core requirement. Laboratory fee for BIOL 104X: $70. BIOL 104 offered Spring and Fall via Independent Learning. (3 + 0 or 3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 104L     1 Credit
Natural History of Alaska (n)
A laboratory section only of BIOL 104X designed for transfer students that are non-science majors who have completed a natural science course with no laboratory at another institution. This lab cannot be used as a biology elective by biological science majors. Laboratory Fee: $70. (Prerequisites: A natural science course with no laboratory and permission of instructor.) (0 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 105X     4 Credits
BIOL 106X     4 Credits
Fundamentals of Biology I and II (n)
Principles of biology for the science major. First semester: ecology, genetics, evolution, diversity of life, plant structure and function. Second semester: chemistry of life, introduction to cell structure and function, molecular biology, animal structure and function. Laboratory fee: $50. Students for whom this course is required for their major will be given preference when space is limited. (Prerequisites for 105X: High school algebra or equivalent and placement in ENGL 111X. Recommended: High school biology and chemistry, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for 106X: CHEM 103X or CHEM 105X and placement in ENGL 111X.) (3 + 3) 105X Offered Fall, 106X Offered Spring


BIOL 111X     4 Credits
BIOL 112X     4 Credits
Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II (n)
Integrated view of human structure and function for students in pre-professional allied health programs, biology, physical education, psychology and art. BIOL 111X covers cells, tissues and organs, skeletal and muscle systems, the nervous system and integument. BIOL 112X examines circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems. (Prerequisites: BIOL 111X for BIOL 112X. Recommended: High school biology, high school algebra, CHEM 105X-106X or CHEM 103X-104X, ENGL 111X.) (3 + 3) 111X Offered Fall, 112X Offered Spring


BIOL 135      3 Credits
The Third Kingdom: Mushrooms and other Fungi (n)
Introduction to fungi of the world with an emphasis on Alaska arctic, subarctic and subantarctic environs. Designed to encourage more in-depth study, but is primarily for traditionally non-science orientations. Form, function, symbiosis, taxa, social, industrial and technological applications are emphasized. (Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 150      3 Credits
Introduction to Marine Biology
Survey of marine organisms, evolution of marine life, habitats and communities of ocean zones, productivity and marine resources. For non-science majors; may not be used as biology elective credit for a major in biological science. Independent Learning Only


BIOL 233      3 Credits
Biology of the Non-Vascular Plants
Structure, function, comparative development, taxonomy, phylogeny and life histories of non-vascular cryptograms (blue-green algae, fungi, lichens, mosses, liverworts and horn worts). Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X/106X. Next offered: 2007-08.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 239      4 Credits
Introduction to Plant Biology (n)
Plant biology including plant form and function (morphology, physiology and development), ecology (including interactions with herbivores, pollinators and microbes), conservation, evolution and economic botany. Emphasis on vascular plants (particularly angiosperms) but includes comparisons with nonvascular plants. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 240      4 Credits
Beginnings in Microbiology
Fundamentals of microbiology. Survey of the microbial world, interactions between microbes and host, microbial human diseases, the environmental and economic impact of microorganisms. Provides background in basic and applied microbiology with emphasis on the role microorganisms play in human health and life. Materials fee: $45. (Prerequisites: One course in high school or college-level biology required or permission of instructor. Recommended: One course in chemistry. Note: May not be used as a biology elective for a major in biological sciences.) (3 + 3) Offered As Demand Warrants


BIOL 261      4 Credits
Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology (n)
(Cross-listed with CHEM 261)
Introduction to the structure and function of cells. Topics include: the structure and function of cellular components, including proteins, membranes and organelles; understanding how cells communicate and how information is processed in the cell via DNA replication, transcription and translation. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisite: BIOL 105X, 106X, CHEM 105X, CHEM 106X (or concurrent enrollment.)) (3 + 3) Offered Fall, Spring


BIOL 271      4 Credits
Principles of Ecology (n)
Basic principles in physiological, ecosystem, population and community ecology. Environmental factors and their influence on plants and animals. Structure, growth and regulation of populations. The ecosystem concept, biogeochemical cycles, and the structure and function of major terrestrial biomes. Laboratory fee: $75. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 277      3 Credits
Introduction to Conservation Biology
(Cross-listed with NRM 277)
Introduction to the basic ecological, genetic, management, legal and historical developments in conservation biology, and focused efforts to manage biological diversity resources, with a status review of important habitats and endangered species. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 300W     3 Credits
Research Ethics
Introduction to the ethical values seen in scientific research and medicine. Presents important theories of values and ethics. Examines dilemmas of doctors, scientists and research administrators. Topics include: authorship, data alteration, animal and human experimentation, and whistle blowers. (Prerequisite: ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X or permission of instructor; and Junior standing.) (3 + 0) Offered Fall


BIOL 303      4 Credits
Principles of Metabolism and Biochemistry
Introduction to metabolism at the molecular level. Topics include structure and function of proteins, allostery and feedback, biological regulation and the major pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Presented in an evolutionary and ecological context. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X, CHEM 105X, 106X.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 305      5 Credits
Invertebrate Zoology (n)
Classification, structure, function, evolution and life histories of invertebrate animals. Laboratory fee: $75. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X, and 271. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 6) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 310      4 Credits
Animal Physiology (n)
Animal function, including respiration, digestion, circulation, nerve and muscle function, hormones, and reproduction. Laboratory fee: $60. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X, CHEM 105X, 106X.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 317      4 Credits
Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (n)
Anatomy, phylogeny and evolution of the vertebrates. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X.) (2 + 6) Offered Spring


BIOL 328O     3 Credits
Biology of Marine Organisms (n)
Marine organisms: ocean as a habitat, distribution, classification, functional morphology and general biology of the major biological groups; man and the oceans. (Prerequisite: COMM 131X or 141X; and upper-division standing in a biologically oriented major.) (3 + 0) Offered Spring


BIOL 331      4 Credits
Systematic Botany (n)
Classification of flowering plants with emphasis on Alaskan flora; taxonomic principles, classical and experimental methods of research. Preregistration is required to insure that each student will prepare a plant collection. (Prerequisite: BIOL 239 or permission of instructor. BIOL 362 recommended.) (2 + 6) Offered Spring


BIOL 334W     4 Credits
Structure and Function in Vascular Plants (n)
Morphology, anatomy and physiology of vascular plants, stressing the interrelationships between development, anatomy, growth, water relations, photosynthesis, transport and metabolism. (Prerequisites: BIOL 239, ENGL 111X; and ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 3) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 342      4 Credits
Microbiology (n)
Morphology and physiology of microorganisms. The role of these organisms in the environment and their relationship to humans. Concepts of immunology. Laboratory stresses aseptic techniques for handling microorganisms. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X, CHEM 105X.) (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 362      4 Credits
Principles of Genetics (n)
Principles of inheritance; physiochemical properties of genetic systems. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall, Spring


BIOL 388      3 Credits
Marine and Freshwater Fishes of Alaska (n)
(Cross-listed with FISH 388)
Biology of the marine and freshwater fishes of Alaska including their evolutionary relationships, biogeography, life-history, ecology, behavior and importance to people. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X and 106X or permission of instructor.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 406      4 Credits
Entomology (n)
Biology of insects and related arthropods, with emphasis on anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology and evolution. Lab emphasizes identification. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X, 271. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 3) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 407      3 Credits
Aquatic Entomology
Ecology, taxonomy, anatomy, physiology and evolution of aquatic insects. Laboratories emphasize identification and field/laboratory techniques. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X and 271, or permission of instructor; BIOL 473 recommended. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 417O     3 Credits
Neurobiology (n)
(Stacked with BIOL 617)
Organization and function of the vertebrate nervous system from the subcellular to the organismal levels. Neural bases of sensations, specific behaviors and homeostasis. Applications of basic neurobiological research to pathological conditions. Examples taken mostly from the recent vertebrate literature. (Prerequisite: BIOL 310 or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 422      3 Credits
Physiological Ecology of Overwintering
(Stacked with BIOL 623)
Investigation of physiological and behavioral responses of animals and plants to winter in northern environments. Analysis of biologically relevant environmental changes that accompany winter and comparison of alternative strategies that organisms use to cope with winter including: photoperiodism, acclimatization, arctic endurance, migration, hibernation, supercooling and freeze tolerance. Includes principles of thermoregulation, conductance and fattening. Includes field studies of overwintering of insects and amphibians. (Prerequisites: BIOL 310 or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 425      3 Credits
Mammalogy (n)
Variety of mammals, their behavior, life histories, identification, phylogeny and systematics, morphology, distribution and zoogeography. (Prerequisites: BIOL 317 or permission of instructor and junior standing or above.) (2 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 426W, O/2   3 Credits
Ornithology (n)
Evolution, anatomy, physiology, distribution, migration, breeding biology of birds, their classification and identification. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X-106X; COMM 131X or 141X; ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X; or permission of instructor.) (2 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 427      4 Credits
Ichthyology (n)
(Cross-listed with FISH 427)
Major groups of fishes, emphasizing fishes of northwestern North America. Classification structure, evolution, general biology and importance to man. (Prerequisites: BIOL 317. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 3) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 433      3 Credits
Conservation Genetics
(Stacked with BIOL/WLF 633 and cross-listed with WLF 433)
Concepts of population genetics, phylogenetics, pedigree analysis, systematics and taxonomy as they apply to conservation of species. Evaluating the impact of small population size, population fragmentation, inbreeding, hybridization, taxonomic uncertainties and other factors on viability and management of species. (Prerequisites: BIOL 271, 362 or equivalents or permission of instructor. Recommended: BIOL 277 and NRM 277.) (3 + 0) Offered Spring


BIOL 441W, O/2   3 Credits
Animal Behavior (n)
Genetic and physiological bases of behavior, evolutionary and ecological principles of individual and social behavior, sociobiology and techniques of behavioral observation and analysis. (Prerequisites: BIOL 310, 271; COMM 131X or 141X; ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X; or permission of instructor.) (2 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 442W, O/2   4 Credits
Advanced Microbiology (n)
(Stacked with BIOL 642)
Diversity of microorganisms. Morphology, physiology and systematics of microorganisms, particularly bacteria. Emphasis on organisms of environmental or medical interest. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 342, CHEM 321; COMM 131X or 141X; ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 6) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 443W     3 Credits
Microbial Ecology (n)
Interactions of microorganisms with their environment, emphasizing microbial responses to the environment, microbial processes such as nutrient cycling and pollutant biodegradation, and microbial interactions with each other, plants and animals. (Prerequisite: ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or 213X; BIOL 342 or BIOL 271 or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 444      3 Credits
Reproductive Biology
Comparative physiology, endocrinology, behavior and ecology of reproduction in mammals and birds. Hormonal control of reproductive function and behavior; seasonal rhythms, energetics, and life histories of reproduction. Although primarily comparative, aspects of human reproductive function and health will be covered. (Prerequisite: BIOL 111X, 112X, or 310. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 445      4 Credits
Molecular Evolution
(Stacked with BIOL 645 and CHEM 645 and cross-listed with CHEM 445)
Structure, function and evolution of hereditary molecules (nucleic acids). Laboratory fee: $100. (Prerequisite: BIOL 362.) (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 450W, O     3 Credits
Women and Science
The historical contributions and participation of women in science with an emphasis on the biological sciences. Discussion of the factors affecting female participation in the sciences and how participation of women in science affects the manner in which science is concluded. (Prerequisites: COMM 131X or 141X; ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X; junior standing in the natural sciences; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 453O/2      4 Credits
Molecular Biology
(Stacked with BIOL 653 and CHEM 653 and cross-listed with CHEM 453O/2)
Provides in-depth coverage of eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene function, including the applications of recombinant DNA technology to the biological sciences. (Prerequisite: BIOL 362 or CHEM 321 or BIOL 303; COMM 131X or 141X; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 458      3 Credits
Vertebrate Endocrinology (n)
(Cross-listed with WLF 458)
Introduction to the mechanisms of action and the roles of the main hormonal systems that operate in vertebrates. Hormone effects at the organ, tissue and (sub)cellular levels. Hormonal control of homeostasis and of specific behaviors. Examples to be taken mostly from recent comparative studies. (Prerequisite: BIOL 310 or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 459      3 Credits
Wildlife Nutrition
(Stacked with BIOL 659 and WLF 660 and cross-listed with WLF 460)
Concepts and techniques used by wildlife biologists to understand relationships between wild animals and their habitats. Techniques for constructing energy and nutrient budgets of wild animals and applications of these budgets to population-level processes and habitat management. Laboratory Fees: $70. (Prerequisite: BIOL 310, 271, or permission of instructor.) (3 + 0) Offered Fall


BIOL 461      4 Credits
Cell Biology (n)
(Stacked with BIOL 661 and CHEM 661 and cross-listed with CHEM 461)
Principles of structure and function of eukaryotic cells. Molecular and cellular aspects of internal organization of cells and their integration in a multicellular community, including cytoskeleton, energetics, vesicular traffic, signaling, cell division cycle, DNA replication and transcription, protein translation, adhesion, cancer and cell death. Laboratory involves team-based research to address fundamental aspects of cell biology. Laboratory Fees: $65. (Prerequisites: BIOL 362 or concurrent enrollment, CHEM 321 or concurrent enrollment, or permission of instructor.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 462      3 Credits
Concepts of Infectious Diseases (n)
(Stacked with BIOL 662)
Covers infectious disease biology using examples of different pathogens and exploring the concepts of their biology and the implication of these principles on pathology, epidemiology and sociology of infectious diseases. (Prerequisites: BIOL 261, BIOL 342 or BIOL 461 or permission of instructor.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 465      3 Credits
Immunology (n)
Adaptive immune response including its components and activation from cells to molecules, clonal selection, antigen recognition and discrimination between foreign and self. Concepts applied on the level of intact organisms addressing allergies, autoimmunity, transplantation, tumors and disease (AIDS). (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X; 106X and 310, or BIOL 111X and 112X; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 467      3 Credits
Ecosystems of Alaska
Focus on the application of ecological principles to field research. Emphasis on the integration of ecology with climatology, geology and hydrology to understand the functioning of ecosystems at local and regional scales. One week of intensive lecture and library research followed by 10 days of field research in the major ecosystems of Alaska. Laboratory fee: $150. (Prerequisites: An undergraduate course in ecology, geology, hydrology or climatology and permission of instructor.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Summer, As Demand Warrants


BIOL 469O     3 Credits
Landscape Ecology and Wildlife Habitat
(Cross-listed with WLF 469 and stacked with BIOL 669 and WLF 669)
A problem-based learning and critical thinking approach to modern methods in landscape ecology, including geographic information systems, remote sensing, modeling, software and the Internet. Graduate students are expected to help undergraduates with occurring problems and questions. (Prerequisites: COMM 131X or 141X and BIOL 217 or equivalent.) (2 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 471      3 Credits
Population Ecology (n)
Biology of populations of plants and animals, including population structure, natality, mortality, population growth, regulation of population size, population interactions in competition, herbivory, predation and parasitism. (Prerequisite: a calculus course, BIOL 271 for biology majors; WLF 201 for wildlife majors; either course for others.) (2 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 472W     3 Credits
Community Ecology (n)
Structure of plant and animal communities and their organization. Structuring forces of competition, predation, herbivory, mutualisms and the flow of energy and nutrients. Latitudinal gradients in species richness and biogeography. (Prerequisites: BIOL 271; ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X or permission of instructor.) (2 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 473W     4 Credits
Limnology
The ecology of inland waters emphasizing lakes and rivers. Lecture provides graphically oriented view of concepts. Workshops provide role-playing exercises for integrating social, economic and ecological aspects of managing freshwater systems. Laboratory involves team-based original research from proposal to manuscript. Laboratory fee: $70. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X, 271, CHEM 105X, 106X, ENGL 111X; ENGL 211X or ENGL 213X or permission of instructor.) (2 + 3 + 2) Offered Fall


BIOL 474      4 Credits
Plant Ecology (n)
Principles and contemporary topics in plant ecology. Autoecology, community ecology, ecosystem ecology and evolutionary ecology. (Prerequisites: BIOL 239, BIOL 271, STAT 200X.) (3 + 3) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 475      2 Credits
Vegetation Description and Analysis
Methods of vegetation science including sampling, classification, gradient analysis, ordination, field description and mapping. Field trips to the plant communities of interior Alaska. (Prerequisites: BIOL 474 or other general ecology course, permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (1 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 476      3 Credits
Ecosystem Ecology (n)
Focus on the biological and physical principles that govern functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis on how plants, animals and microorganisms control the movement of water, carbon and nutrients through ecosystems. Discussion of how changes in these processes have altered global cycles of carbon, water and nutrients and sustainability of the world's ecosystems. (Prerequisites: BIOL 271 or 239 or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 481      4 Credits
Principles of Evolution
(Stacked with BIOL 681)
Patterns and processes of evolutionary change are used to explore the unifying principles of the biological sciences. Basic models of population genetics, quantitative genetics, development, phylogenetics and systematics are used to build a conceptual framework for study of living systems. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 271, BIOL 362, STAT 200X, junior standing or permission of instructor. STAT 200X may be taken concurrently.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall, Spring


BIOL 483      3 Credits
Stream Ecology
The ecology of streams and rivers focusing on physical, chemical and biological processes. (Prerequisites: BIOL 105X, 106X and 271. Recommended: CHEM 105X and 106X.) (3 + 0) Offered Spring


BIOL 484      3 Credits
Molecular Ecology (n)
(Stacked with BIOL 684)
Molecular methods provide critical tools in conservation and ecology. Introduce DNA methods used to construct phylogenetic trees, instigate microbial communities, assess population subdivision and geographic structure, study breeding systems, assign population of origin and more. Semester projects will play a central role. Recommended: BIOL 303. (Prerequisites: BIOL 362.) (2 + 4) Offered Fall


BIOL 485      3 Credits
Global Change Biology (n)
(Cross-listed with WLF 485)
Contemporary science and policy concerns of global change that involve biological processes. Includes structural and functional responses and sensitivities of biological processes to environmental changes (such as climate and human uses of land and biological resources); implications of biological responses to global change for conservation and management of biological resources; and the social and economic consequences of biological responses to global change. (Prerequisites: BIOL 271, CHEM 105X and CHEM 106X. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 487      3 Credits
Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology
(Stacked with BIOL 687 and PHIL 687 and cross-listed with PHIL 487)
Analysis of some of the main models which explain evolutionary change, followed by consideration of the practical implications these models have on the study of biological phenomena in general. (Next offered: 2008-09. ) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 602      3 Credits
Research Design
(Cross-listed with WLF 602)
An introduction to the philosophy, performance and evaluation of hypothetical/deductive research in the natural sciences, with emphasis on hypothesis formulation and testing. Each student will develop a research proposal. (3 + 0) Offered Fall


BIOL 611J      3 Credits
Fish Physiology
Physiology of the living fishes. (Prerequisites: BIOL 310 [Juneau BIOL 310], BIOL 427.) (3 + 0) Offered in Juneau, As Demand Warrants


BIOL 613      2 Credits
Resilience Internship
(Stacked with ANTH 617 and cross-listed with ECON 613 and NRM 613)
Students of the Resilience and Adaptation Program participate in internships to broaden their interdisciplinary training, develop new research tools and build expertise outside their home disciplines. Internships are for eight to ten weeks of full time commitment and take place during the student's first summer in the program. In the autumn students meet to discuss their internship experiences and make public presentations. (Prerequisites: ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 667 and 668 or permission of instructor.) (2 + 0) Offered Spring and Fall


BIOL 614      2 Credits
Foraging Ecology
(Cross-listed with WLF 614)
The dynamics of herbivory, emphasizing the foraging process and including mechanisms of feeding, feeding behavior, habitat and plant selection, physiological influences on feeding, plant and community level responses, plant defenses against herbivory and management of plant-herbivore systems. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing or approval of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 615      3 Credits
Systematic and Comparative Biology
Concepts of systematic biology basic to a rigorous and complete understanding of modern evolutionary theory. Systematics provides the historical framework critical to a variety of comparative analyses in biology. Recent innovations in phylogenetic analyses will be explored. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing in biology or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 617      3 Credits
Neurobiology
(Stacked with BIOL 417O)
Organization and function of the vertebrate nervous system from subcellular to organismal levels. Neural bases of sensations, specific behaviors and homeostasis. Applications of basic neurobiological research to pathological conditions. Examples taken mostly from the recent vertebrate literature. (Prerequisite: BIOL 310 and graduate standing; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 618      3 Credits
Biogeography
Spatial and temporal geography of plant and animal groups; emphasis on environmental and historical features controlling present patterns of distribution. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing or permission of instructor.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 622      3 Credits
Readings in Conservation Biology
(Cross-listed with WLF 622)
Critical reading and discussion of historical and contemporary literature concerning extinction patterns, population viability and the preservation, design and management of habitats for small populations. Stresses integration of principles into strategies for biological conservation. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing; BIOL 471 or WLF 410; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 623      3 Credits
Physiological Ecology of Overwintering
(Stacked with BIOL 422)
Investigation of physiological and behavioral responses of animals and plants to winter in northern environments. Analysis of biologically relevant environmental changes that accompany winter, and comparison of alternative strategies that organisms use to cope with winter including: photoperiodism, acclimatization, arctic endurance, migration, hibernation, supercooling and freeze tolerance. Includes principles of thermoregulation, conductance and fattening. Includes field studies of overwintering of insects and amphibians. (Prerequisites: BIOL 310 or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 629      3 Credits
Advanced Animal Behavior
Adaptive nature of behavior in relation to the physical, biological and social environment. Current problems and controversies in the study of behavior. (Prerequisites: BIOL 441 and graduate standing; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 633      4 Credits
Conservation Genetics
(Stacked with BIOL/WLF 433 and cross-listed with WLF 633)
Concepts of population genetics, phylogenetics, pedigree analysis, systematics and taxonomy as they apply to conservation of species. Evaluating the impact of small population size, population fragmentation, inbreeding, hybridization, taxonomic uncertainties and other factors on viability and management of species. (Prerequisites: BIOL 271, 362 or equivalents or permission of instructor. Recommended: BIOL 277 and NRM 277.) (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 642      4 Credits
Advanced Microbiology
(Stacked with BIOL 442W, O/2)
Diversity of microorganisms. Morphology, physiology and systematics of microorganisms, particularly bacteria. Emphasis on organisms of environmental or medical interest. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: BIOL 342, CHEM 321 and graduate standing; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 6) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 644      3 Credits
Advanced Topics in Evolution
Modern theory and subdisciplinary directions in the expanding field of evolutionary biology. Topics include adaptation, speciation, reinforcement, comparative method, group selection, phylogeography, advanced systematics, geographic variation and the role of evolutionary biology in society. May be repeated for credit when content varies. (Prerequisites: Undergraduate course in evolution or permission of instructor.) (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Spring


BIOL 645      4 Credits
Molecular Evolution
(Stacked with BIOL 445 and CHEM 445 and cross-listed with CHEM 645)
Structure, function and evolution of hereditary molecules (nucleic acids). Laboratory fee: $100. (Prerequisites: BIOL 362 and graduate standing; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2007-08.) (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 647      3 Credits
Regional Sustainability
(Cross-listed with ANTH 647, ECON 647 and NRM 647)
Explores basic principles that govern resilience and change of ecological and social systems. The principles are applied at the level of populations, communities, regions and the globe. Working within and across each of these scales, students address the processes that influence ecological, cultural and economic sustainability, with an emphasis on Alaska examples. (Prerequisite: Graduate standing in a natural science, social science, humanities or interdisciplinary program at UAF, or permission of instructor.) (3 + 0) Offered Fall


BIOL 648      3 Credits
Integrative Modeling of Natural and Social Systems
(Cross-listed with ANTH 648, ECON 648 and NRM 648)
Provides a modeling approach to structuring knowledge from natural and social scientific disciplines so relevant aspects of a complex societal problem are considered for the purpose of making management and policy decisions. Designed to help graduate students use models to integrate understanding about interactions among natural and social systems for the purpose of managing biological and human resources. (Prerequisite: STAT 200X or equivalent, graduate standing in a natural science, social science, humanities or interdisciplinary program at UAF or another university, or permission of instructor. The course is designed to fit into the sequence of the Resilience and Adaptation program's core courses. It is open to other graduate students interested in and prepared to conduct interdisciplinary studies relating to regional sustainability. Recommended: ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 647.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 649      3 Credits
Integrated Assessment and Adaptive Management
(Cross-listed with ANTH 649, ECON 649 and NRM 649)
Interdisciplinary exploration of theoretical and practical considerations of integrated assessment and adaptive management. Students survey concepts important in understanding societal and professional-level decision-making. Students work as individuals and as a team to undertake case studies with relevance to integrated assessment and adaptive management. The class builds a portfolio of cases and conducts an integrated assessment. (Prerequisite: Graduate standing in a natural science, social science, humanities or interdisciplinary program at UAF or another university, or permission of instructor. The course is designed to fit into the sequence of the Resilience and Adaptation program's core courses. It is open to other graduate students interested in and prepared to conduct interdisciplinary studies relating to sustainability. Recommended: ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 667; and ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 647 and 648. In case of enrollment limits, priority will be given to graduate students in the Resilience and Adaptation program in order for them to be able to meet their core requirements.) (3 + 0) Offered Spring


BIOL 650      3 Credits
Fish Ecology
(Cross-listed with FISH 650)
The ecology of fish is examined from the community aspect. Current literature on inter- and intraspecific relationships, influence of the environment on community structure, behavior and production is emphasized. (Prerequisites: BIOL 473 [Juneau BIOL 423] and FISH 400.) (2 + 3) Offered Fairbanks, Alternate Fall; Offered Juneau, As Demand Warrants


BIOL 653      4 Credits
Molecular Biology
(Stacked with BIOL 453O/2 and CHEM 453O/2 and cross-listed with CHEM 653)
In-depth coverage of eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene function, including the applications of recombinant DNA technology to the biological sciences. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing; BIOL 303 or BIOL 362 or CHEM 321; or permission of instructor.) (3 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 659      4 Credits
Wildlife Nutrition
(Stacked with BIOL 459 and WLF 460, and cross-listed with WLF 660)
Concepts and techniques used by wildlife biologists to understand relationships between wild animals and their habitats. Techniques for constructing energy and nutrient budgets of wild animals and applications of these budgets to population-level processes and habitat management. Laboratory Fee: $70. (Prerequisite: BIOL 310, 271; graduate standing or permission of instructor.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall


BIOL 661      4 Credits
Cell Biology
(Stacked with BIOL 461 and CHEM 461 and cross-listed with CHEM 661)
Principles of structure and function of eucaryotic cells. Molecular and cellular aspects of internal organization of cells and their integration in a multicellular community including cytoskeleton, energetics, vesicular traffic, signaling, cell division cycle, DNA replication and transcription, protein translation, adhesion, cancer and cell death. Laboratory involves team-based research to address fundamental aspects of cell biology. Laboratory Fee: $65. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing; BIOL 362 or concurrent enrollment; CHEM 321 or concurrent enrollment; or permission of instructor.) (3 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 662      3 Credits
Concepts of Infectious Diseases (n)
(Stacked with BIOL 462)
Covers infectious disease biology using examples of different pathogens and exploring the concepts of their biology and the implication of these principles on pathology, epidemiology and sociology of infectious diseases. (3 + 0) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 667      1 Credit
Resilience Seminar I
(Cross-listed with ANTH 667, ECON 667 and NRM 667)
Provides a forum for new students of the Resilience and Adaptation graduate program to explore issues of interdisciplinary research that are relevant to sustainability. A considerable portion of the seminar is student-directed, with students assuming leadership in planning seminar activities with the instructor. (Prerequisite: Student must be enrolled in Resilience and Adaptation graduate program or have permission of instructor. Recommended: ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 647 [taken concurrently].) (2 + 0) Offered Fall


BIOL 668      1 Credit
Resilience Seminar II
(Cross-listed with ANTH 668, ECON 668 and NRM 668)
Provides a forum for new students of the Resilience and Adaptation graduate program to explore issues of interdisciplinary research that are relevant to sustainability. The seminar provides support to each student planning his/her summer internship and preparing and presenting a thesis research prospectus. (Prerequisites: ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 667; and ANTH/BIOL/ECON/NRM 647 or permission of instructor.) (2 + 0) Offered Spring


BIOL 669      3 Credits
Landscape Ecology and Wildlife Habitat
(Cross-listed with WLF 669 and stacked with BIOL 469 and WLF 469)
A problem based learning and critical thinking approach to modern methods in landscape ecology, including geographic information systems, remote sensing, modeling, software and the Internet. Graduate students are expected to help undergraduates with occurring problems and questions. (Prerequisite: Graduate student standing.) (2 + 3) Offered Spring


BIOL 672      3 Credits
Ecosystem Processes
A comparative approach to the structural and functional components of terrestrial ecosystems, emphasizing primary and secondary production and the dynamics of nutrient cycling processes. Interactions between producers, consumers and decomposition processes, and effects on the efficiencies of nutrient and energy transfers. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2007-08.) (2 + 0 + 2) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 675      3 Credits
Plant Physiological Ecology
Physiological ecology of dormancy, germination, growth, photosynthesis, water relations and nutrition with an emphasis on northern and other stressful environments; relationship to community and ecosystem processes. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing; BIOL 239, 334 and 474; or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 677      3 Credits
Advanced Topics in Plant Ecology and Systematics
One of four topics is covered each year: 1) Current issues and concepts in plant population and community ecology. 2) Reproductive ecology--pollination, seed dispersal, breeding systems and coevolution. 3) Plant families of the world. 4) Plant-animal interactions--evolution and ecology. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing and BIOL 474; or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit when topic differs.) (3 + 0) Offered Spring


BIOL 680      3 Credits
Data Analysis in Biology
(Cross-listed with WLF 680)
Biological applications of nonparametric statistics, including tests based on binomial and Poisson distributions, analysis of two-way and multiway contingency tables and tests based on ranks; multivariate statistics, including principal component analysis, ordination techniques, cluster and discriminate analysis; and time-series analysis. Introduction to the use of the computer and use of statistical packages. Each student will analyze a data set appropriate to the student's research interests. (Prerequisites: STAT 200X, 401 and either graduate standing in a biologically oriented field or permission of instructor. Next offered: 2008-09.) (2 + 3) Offered Alternate Fall


BIOL 681      4 Credits
Principles of Evolution
(Stacked with BIOL 481)
Patterns and processes of evolutionary change are used to explore the unifying principles of the biological sciences. Basic models of population genetics, quantitative genetics, development, phylogenetics and systematics are used to build a conceptual framework for study of living systems. Laboratory fee: $50. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing with courses in genetics, ecology and statistics; or permission of instructor.) (3 + 3) Offered Fall, Spring


BIOL 684      3 Credits
Molecular Ecology
(Stacked with BIOL 484)
Molecular methods provide critical tools in conservation and ecology. Introduction of DNA methods used to construct phylogenetic trees, instigate microbial communities, assess population subdivision and geographic structure, study breeding systems, assign population of origin and more. Semester projects will play a central role. (Prerequisites: Graduate standing or permission of instructor.) (2 + 4) Offered Fall


BIOL 687      3 Credits
Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology
(Stacked with BIOL 487 and PHIL 487 and cross-listed with PHIL 687)
Analysis of some of the main models which explain evolutionary change, followed by consideration of the practical implications these models have on the study of biological phenomena in general. (3 + 0) Offered Spring


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