View of Pantar Strait from Alor Kecil (photo: Gary Holton)

The Alor-Pantar Languages

The Alor-Pantar (AP) languages are a group of 15-20 non-Austronesian (“Papuan”) languages spoken on several islands in eastern Indonesia. They are of special interest because they have no established genetic relatives. A relationship to the Trans New Guinea family has been proposed, but remains highly disputed, due to the lack of language documentation. Documention of these languages has recently begun, but the material has yet to be analyzed in a rigorous fashion, and the theoretical linguistic community is largely unaware of these data. The implications for language classification, migration patterns, and morphosyntactic and semantic typology remain largely unexplored.

The project (2009-2012) greatly expanded the documentation and theoretical analyses of the AP languages, collecting high quality archival data to deepen our understanding of human language. It was divided into three Individual Projects: Extended Documentation, Word Class Typology and Linguistic Prehistory. The aims of Extended Documentation are (a) to study the spatial reference system of five of the AP languages, focusing on demonstrative systems, locative constructions, and landscape and toponymic terms; (ii) to document the numeral systems, investigating the structure and distribution of numerals, ordinals and numeral classifiers, the concepts they encode, their historical source, and their functional and lexical properties. Word Class Typology aims to investigate (i) the continuum between word classes and grammatical features; (ii) how morphosyntactic categories evolve from diffuse pragmatic and syntactic conditions; (iii) several particularly unusual morphosyntactic phenomena of the AP languages. Linguistic Prehistory aims to provide quantitative evidence for the genetic position of the AP languages, based on bottom-up reconstruction using the comparative method.

Now is a crucial time for this work: the AP languages are severely endangered but still have sufficient vitality to provide additional supporting documentation without difficulty. The quality of AP language data is likely to decline significantly over the next two decades as language shift progresses.


Publications and Data

Comprehensive results from this project are freely available in an open-access publication edited by project co-PI Marian Klamer. The Alor-Pantar Languages: History and typology can be freely downloaded from Language Sciences Press

Primary documentation can be accessed via the LAISEANG repository at The Language Archive,


EuroBABEL brochure image

The EuroBABEL programme -- Better Analysis Based on Endangered Languages -- was a three-year initiative of the European Science Foundation (2009-2012) which sought to more fully integrate the documentation of endangered languages into linguistic research. The programme linked 22 individual research projects gathered into five teams of researchers from nine different countries. These projects undertook empirical research on under-documented endangered languages in order to challenge and refine ideas about linguistic structure.

Back to Top