APA Matters

APA MATTERS—6th ed.

Crediting Sources

 I. In-text Citations

A. In citing sources in APA, use an author-date format--

Banken (2008) studied pre-schoolers at four urban day-care centers over an eight-month period.
                   
If I refer to this study again in the same paragraph, I need not cite the year again unless there is a possibility of confusing this study with another.

OR

A recent study examined the quality of care experienced by children enrolled in four urban day-care centers (Banken, 2008).

If I refer to this study again in the same paragraph as the citation above, I need to include author and date.

Banken (2008) limited her investigation to children between the ages of one and five.

I will need to include author-date information on this study if I refer to it in a subsequent paragraph.

B.  For a work produced by two authors, cite both names on each reference--

Banken and Vozella (2008) found an increased rate of hyper-activity among children under the age of three enrolled in urban day-care centers.

Increased hyper-activity was observed among children enrolled in urban day-care centers before the age of three (Banken & Vozella, 2008).

C.  With multiple authors (three or more) use all names only on the first reference--

Hacker, Kurrasch, Grinnell, and Williams (2009) expanded the scope of their earlier investigation.

In subsequent citations, follow the example below:

Hacker et al. (2009) inserted additional variables into their experiment.



II.  Quotation & Paraphrase

A. Quotation requires author, date, and page.  If I use an on-line source without pagination, I should substitute paragraph number for page number.

Noe (2009) finds the border a useful guiding metaphor for Latino/a students enrolled in American universities:  “[I]t comes out of the multiethnic experience itself and has developed to meet the needs of that experience rather than the desires of academic theorizing” (p. 597).

The border serves as a useful metaphor for Latino/a students enrolled in American universities because “it comes out of the multiethnic experience itself and has developed to meet the needs of that experience rather than the desires of academic theorizing” (Noe, 2009, p. 597).

Moses (2008) found that even the youngest learners in his study—those between the ages of four and six—“preferred reading for content over reading for sentence pattern practice” (para. 7).

If the quoted material consists of 40+ words, use a block quotation.  Indent the left margin one-half inch, omit the quotation marks, and double-space the full quotation.

Noe (2009) stresses the Latino/a impulse toward diversity of presentation and response:

        Zoot Suit, as do many other Latino/a ironic revisions, actively counters order

        and individualism by insisting that deviations are cultural—and normal.  In

        opposing Anglo individualism, Latino/a writers sidestep an individualist/

        communitarian exclusionary binary that demands a single ethnic allegiance….

        [O]ften we as teachers see our students’ behaviors … as individual deviations from our

        pedagogies. (p. 602)

B.  Paraphrase does not require either a page or a paragraph number in citation.  However, it is a courtesy to do so and a help to the reader, especially if I refer to a long or complex passage.

Noe finds the border a more useful metaphor for his discussion of Latino/a university students than boundary, as the latter carries the weight of national or political limits (p. 597).